2. Papules and pustules.
3. Nodes and cysts.
4. Scars (all types of acne scarring – atrophic (as smallpox), or hypertrophic (protruding above the skin).
Causes of Acne:
1. Disturbance of keratinization in the hair follicles.
2. Hormonal changes:
2.1. High levels of androgens.
2.2. The local increase in the concentration of androgen in the skin.
2.3. The slow destruction of the androgen.
Course of the disease:
Acne usually goes away after 20 years but can persist up to 35-40 years. The main consequence is a scarring; this complication can be avoided if you begin treatment of acne early.
The scheme of acne treatment in mild cases:
1. Antibiotics for topical use.
5. Proper nutrition.
Improvement occurs within 5-8 months of regular use.
Treatment of acne in moderate cases:
The scheme is similar to mild, but there may be additional items:
1. Antibiotics for oral.
2. Also good results for women give high doses of estrogen combined with progestogen or antiandrogens.
Acne Treatment in severe cases:
1. Antibiotics for oral.
2. Retinoids for oral. Retinoids are highly effective and allow you to quickly achieve a complete remission that has lasted for years, but this treatment shall be appointed by the ineffectiveness of external retinoids.
Sure acne is an indication for antibiotic treatment in the form of external use, or for oral use. Antibiotics have excellent anti-inflammatory effect. BUT! Use antibiotics for acne should be strictly on the testimony, if there are a large number of pustular elements and only for a short period of time, because long-term use of antibiotics destroys useful microflora of organism.
Retinoids is the most effective treatment for acne. They influence the activity of the sebaceous glands, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects on cells. Retinoids are divided into natural and synthetic, as well as preparations for external use and for use inside.
Problem skin care
A special place in the treatment of acne occupies a cosmetic skin care, which is especially important after treatment.
Many patients use cosmetics for problem skin during the treatment of acne, as well as various degreasing means, including alcoholic solutions. This is unacceptable. All degreasing means destroy lipid barrier of the skin. This leads to hyperstimulation of the sebaceous glands, due to pronounced irritant effect on the nerve endings. Second, low-fat skin is not able to resist the effects of pathogenic organisms; it leads to a drastic deterioration of the disease.
Peeling and cleaning
Peels are used in the treatment of acne widely. And in my opinion, they are one of the most effective and safe treatments for acne. They do not have mutagenic activity (such as retinoids), non-toxic (as antibiotics), do not damage the epidermal barrier, did not inhibit the immune system, skin, and do not affect the microflora of the skin. Most often in dealing with acne, we use glycol, and salicylic peels. Glycolic peel provides excellent exfoliating action, promotes deeper penetration of drugs (retinoids) in the skin.